lincoln portrait Young Lincoln portrait

by Edward J. Kempf, M.D. Wading River, N.Y.


A.M.A. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, April 1952, Volume 67, Number 4, Pages 419-433.
Copyright 1952, American Medical Association

  1. A third cousin, now living, Jonas Basham, whose grandmother, Mimi Hanks, was a first cousin of Lincoln's mother, Nancy Hanks, inherited facial creases remarkably similar to those of Abraham Lincoln, indicating maternal transmission of this unusual characteristic. A genetically oriented genealogical investigation of these, and the hereditary facial characteristics in Lincoln's maternal and paternal ancestry, discussed in this paper would contribute important evidence on his family tree.
  2. Hertz, E.: The Hidden Lincoln, from the Letters and Papers of William H. Herndon, New York, The Viking Press, 1938.
  3. Wold, K. C.: Mr. President-How Is Your Health? St. Paul, Bruce Publishing Company, 1948.
  4. Kretschmer, E.: Physique and Character, New York, Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1925.
  5. Sheldon, W. H.: The Varieties of Human Physique, New York, Harper & Brothers, 1940.
  6. Kempf, E. J. - Biological Differentiation of Energic Constitutional Types, M. Rec. 154:295 (Oct. 15) 1941.
  7. H. E. Mock (Skull Fractures and Brain Injuries, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1950) reports that about 7% of untreated fractures of the skull in children end fatally. Before the automobile most such fractures were caused by being kicked in the head.
  8. Lincoln was also struck on the head with a club in a fight with Negro marauders while taking a flatboat down the Mississippi, when he was either 19 or 22. This blow, he said, left a permanent scar (of unknown location), However, it probably did no further damage, for he routed the hoodlums, saved his cargo, and continued the journey. Congenital injury of the nervous system has also been suggested to account for the ocular and facial symptoms, but this is discredited by the definite history of a blow on the forehead in childhood that knocked him unconscious for many hours.
  9. Mock, H.E.: Skull Fractures and Brain Injuries, Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Company, 1950.
  10. Herndon, W.H., and Weik, J.W.: Herndon's Lincoln: The True Story of a Great Life, Chicago, Belford, Clarke, & Company, 1889.
  11. Shastid, T.H.: My Father Knew Lincoln, Nation 2:227, 1929.
  12. Crisp, W. H.: The Eyes of Abraham Lincoln, Am. J. Ophth, 15:775, 1932.
  13. Mitchell, S.: Diagnosis of Heterophoria from a Portrait, Ophth. Rec. 23:224 (May) 1914; cited by Wold.{3}
  14. Lamon, W. H.: The Life of Abraham Lincoln, from His Birth to His Inauguration as President, Boston, Osgood & Co., 1872.
  15. Meserve, F. H., and Sandburg, C.: Photographs of Abraham Lincoln, York, Harcourt, Brace & Company, 1944.
  16. Lorant, S.: Lincoln; His Life in Photographs, New York, Duell, Sloan & Pearce, Inc., 1941.